considering the interactions among related fields. I probably err more on the side of letting myself run wild than on that of being overly theoretical. They are constructing entirely new languages—or. I have since looked up the word in the OED, and it has a history, with many meanings, one of whom would fit pretty well with the way we understand the term now, so I may have come across it somewhere, and borrowed it into the syntax that George and I were trying to set up. equally flagrant anachronisms. Category Archives: Alumni replies. Is syntactic variation expressible through the notion of parameter? Conversely, if the question of Particular Grammars remains unaddressed, then generative syntax has little to say on ‘the fundamental aim of linguistic analysis’. Some significant issues are the following: The only broad question I was interested in when I was a graduate student is, what shape does UG take? MIT students have been making up such words—but not for English, or any other known language. A very long while, as it turned out. This sort of brings me back to John von Neumann. However, I think similar databases may even more immediately allow for an original empirical way of testing of parametric approaches. Gifts of alumni/ae and friends to establish a fund in memory of Richard Cartwright, to support fellowships in the department of Linguistics and Philosophy. 2, ‘The Independence of Grammar’. One is: the more I study, the more I know. Suffice it to think of: I believe that these topics are so broad and central that they will remain on focus in syntactic research in the years to come. And that has to do with the way we teachers imprison our students within the theories that we have either created or adopted. A plausible strategy in order to find evidence for P&P or its variants is that of collecting relatively many hypothetical parameters, set in relatively many languages, though all contained within a single submodule of grammar (in order to downsize the complexity of the task and the risk of missing some of the close interactions between contiguous parameters). In other words, at a great distance from its empirical source, or after much ‘abstract’ inbreeding, a mathematical subject is in danger of degeneration. The MIT School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (SHASS) is one of the five schools of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The search for language I hope my book Lexicon and Syntax has been a step in this direction. With few exceptions, involving parameters that sort of fizzled out, research proceeded as if any grammatical pattern in some $latex L_i$ could always be decomposed into an interesting UG component plus some downgraded remnant that was ‘low level’, ‘a late rule’, ‘morphology’ or ‘purely lexical’. I think that letting go, first of the dream to have clockwork-like rules, and second, of the hubris of thinking that I am getting closer and closer to having all of the basic ducks in a row – abandoning, however wistfully, both of those dreams (or is it really just one single dream? The indignation was contagious – I was indignant back, not because I view my ignorance as being more important than other people’s, but because I had come to the conclusion, at the end of my thesis, that what progress seemed to me to be was the ability to ask deeper questions. How, if at all, are these sets related? It was vastly clever – but I didn’t buy it. What currently interests me is the way sets of potential inferences are generated for different pragmatic tasks, as well as the grammar-context interface principles that determine which subsets of these potential inferences will become actual inferences. As a student who had been strongly attracted by grammars of $latex L$ (= English, Latin, German, Greek, French) and holder of a mathematics MA, what attracted me to the MIT program, via Chomsky’s writings, was the sense that at least preliminary explicit formulations of these grammars of $latex L$ were in sight—not during my stay at MIT, but in say a couple of decades. The glimpses of understanding of syntactic “change” achieved so far permit us, in my view, to empirically evaluate P&P with respect to their “historical adequacy”, i.e. So a degree in linguistics is a great foundation for many careers, and graduate programs. If so, what is the format and locus of parameters? Jay Keyser, the editor, had had the great idea to have a squibs section in LI, and had invited me and Dave Perlmutter to be squibs editors. Interpretive Semantics. Affix Hopping happened magically, and word boundaries were cleverly inserted where they would do the most good, and I was thrilled. Cambridge, MA 02139 We published very few of what we came to call “mystery squibs.” One mystery squib of mine was a question: what is the source of that in this sentence: “The rules of Clouting and Dragoff apply in that order.”? The other is: the more I study, the more clearly I see how little I know. — “Experiments in Thinking about Observed Ethnological Material,” in Steps to an Ecology of Mind, Ballantine Books, New York (1972), pp. Of course we will fail miserably in our attempts to understand their densest writing. George Lakoff, who was then an assistant professor of linguistics at Harvard, starting around the fall of 1964, if memory serves (which would be a miracle), and I started trading them back and forth from that time on. Bateson, who was one of the greatest minds of the twentieth century, when talking of the way he held his mind in his research, says this: “I want to emphasize that whenever we pride ourselves upon finding a newer, stricter way of thought or exposition; whenever we start insisting too hard upon ‘operationalism’ or symbolic logic or any other of those very essential systems of tramlines, we lose something of the ability to think new thoughts. In fact, it is very difficult to imagine a viable alternative to a parametric model (broadly understood as any finite set of discrete predetermined choices) of grammar acquisition. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jlawler/von.neumann.html. Hear the “Conlangs” Invented by MIT Linguistics Students Professor Patrick Henry Winston ’65, SM ’67, PhD ’70 Every year, my wife forces me to take a vacation, this year on a cruise ship. Chomsky 1995, 7: “The P&P model is in part a bold speculation rather than a specific hypothesis. Indeed, of the MIT alumni presently on the linguistics faculty, not one had a background in science. many languages is smaller than it appears. We need a community of inquirers who have a broad understanding of this entire spectrum before they can specialize in their narrow pursuits. A core idea was that a theory of such elements should include: I personally worked a lot on licensing and identifications of null pronominals, with special reference to pro, and of traces, mainly arising from A’ dependencies. phrasal stress). The latter stance is of course the one that rhymes most deeply with my soul. “It’s not a super-logical premise,” she says, “but it’s a lot of fun facing the constraints. What I started with was fine but it had to give way pretty soon to an apparently aimless kind of ambling, sashaying towards poeticity. What are the mechanisms that convert these sets of potential inferences to actual inferences? What is the current status of this question? As a community, I wonder if we have really understood the implications of his starting point. What was the broad question that you most wanted to get an answer to during your time in the program? languages but not in others. . Senior Jessica Tang’s new language is for spaceships that speak. Nevertheless, its basic assumptions seem reasonable…. Did it turn out to be an ill-conceived question? Or a word that perfectly captures the idea of doing something for no reason? MIT Department of Linguistics and Philosophy 77 Massachusetts Avenue Room 32-D808 Cambridge, MA 02139. After 20 years, I’m interested in the same question, which continues to be fascinating. I might wish to escape this bind, but I believe that there is no such thing as a non-illusory escape. We need a new generation of linguists who are better than we are. With a lot of progress made in the 80’s, this time table was getting rather tight for students in the early 90’s. At the beginning the special nature of the MIT program entailed a certain problem for its survival, namely, the finding of qualified staff. 600 Memorial Drive Traces are generally assumed in minimalist syntax, but the necessity of assuming null pronominals (PRO and pro) is controversial (e.g.., under the movement theory of control and the “pronominal affix” approach to null subjects). It seems to me that if we want to understand the deepest parts of a language, we should first go to its greatest writers, and look most carefully at all the pyrotechnics that they can pull out of their hat. The clarity of my understanding of this huge domain has not kept up with the degree of confusion that I feel about things, the most very basic things. But there is a grave danger that the subject will develop along the line of least resistance, that the stream, so far from its source, will separate into a multitude of insignificant branches, and that the discipline will become a disorganized mass of details and complexities. Did it turn out to be an ill-conceived question? They are constructing entirely new languages—or “conlangs”—in a class that uses linguistics, the science of language, to supply the necessary building blocks. I first came to MIT in the Fall 1979, under Noam’s urge after his visit to Pisa in the Spring of that year, and then I was a visiting Scholar several times (for about 6 terms between 1979 and 1989). Precisely this kind of success established linguistics as a well respected discipline in the 19th century. I think that perhaps the most beautiful statement of the stance I wish I could cleave to comes from Thomas Huxley: “Sit down before fact like a little child, and be prepared to give up every preconceived notion, follow humbly wherever and to whatever abysses Nature leads, or you shall learn nothing.”, — T. H. Huxley, quoted in Marilyn Ferguson, “Karl Pribram’s Changing Reality,” in Ken Wilber (ed.). In fact, it is more than meaningful. Better: whether someone would reach it someday or not, I myself stopped reaching for it. something like a credo. Video: What’s the Most Useful Thing You Learned at MIT? As I muse backwards, I see two main issues. ), MIT Press (1960). I no longer remember this, but George tells me that it was me who came up with the name squib. though metrical theory, in particular the Weight-Stress Principle and their ability to provide correct insights on the actual history of languages and populations through space and time. For example, English has quite a strict rule for ordering adjectives—it’s always “a big red car,” never “a red big car.” New English learners routinely have to memorize this far-from-universal rule, while native speakers may not even be aware of it. Generative vs. The field of syntax is infinitely immenser than it was when I was a student at the ’Tute, and I am way out of touch with current research. i.e., how and where are they expressed in a grammatical system. It would be easy to give examples, to trace specific evolutions into the baroque and the very high baroque, but this would be too technical. The path to answering (2) is then for at least some researchers to work on it, after its being sidetracked and hidden from view for most of the generative period. Fukui and Speas, Chomsky, and notably Ouhalla, these Grammatical Lexicons are rarely formulated or theoretically developed by research in syntax, beyond occasional focus on isolated morphemes (Hebrew sel, French se). “Some of the critical materials my mentor has written use many linguistic terms and concepts,” she says. The squibs are my tether – they keep me from getting lost in the beauty of my (many) pet theories. So the current status of question (2) is “unanswered”; there are still no preliminary explicit formulations of Grammatical Lexicons $latex G_i$. Now, over thirty years later, parametric theories have become a standard form of successfully expressing contrastive generalizations and typological clustering of variable grammatical properties. the difference to a parameter, so that some contour tones split and In sum, pursuing problems of the type of 3) and 4) represents in my opinion much more structured and updated ways to address the concerns which intrigued me and drew me to MIT in the 1980s. Understanding how languages work is what the linguistics field is all about, and 24.917 provides a thorough introduction to the subject—including fundamental topics such as phonetics (making sounds), morphology (forming words), and syntax (developing phrases). the theory of silent syntactic positions (null pronominals and, more generally, null arguments, traces, etc. A substantial though still manageable database of this type can be subjected to various tests which are not possible with isolated parameters, e.g. Under this architecture, the role of relevance is reduced to merely selecting some subset of these potential inferences for purposes of pragmatic reasoning. I am all for explanations and theories, but I side with Gregory Bateson’s father, William Bateson, a great nineteenth-century biologist – the first to use the term “genetics.” He told Gregory to treasure his exceptions, a stance my blood approves. If we really wish to take the starting point seriously, we need to abolish the boundaries between the so-called (generative) theoretical linguistics, psycholinguistics, neuro-linguistics, and bio-linguistics. Moreover, outside of HPSG, whose grammars seem unreservedly stipulative and factor out no UG ‘supplement’, generative syntax still largely ignores (2). Thus, this practical approach makes it possible to meaningfully raise questions like 3): 3) Are (fragments of) parametrized grammars mathematically learnable? I worked for around ten years at trying to articulate a non-discrete (= squishy) theory of grammar. the determination of tonal domains as stress domains (through word and It’s not the kind of question you can get the final answer to before you finish the program (or before your life is over). rules – that took some serious hits. ... LINGUISTICS | ALUMNI The other thing which I have been working on, this time for a mere 33 years, is poetics. My experience made me wary of parameter-based solutions, which are And then Morris and I started teaching 23.751 – the first syntax course. and they do suggest a natural way to resolve the tension between descriptive and explanatory adequacy”). However, though espoused at times by e.g. Impenetrability: certain configurations are impenetrable to rules (Island Constraints, Subjacency, CED, Phase Impenetrability,…) At Penn, I hadn’t even tried to think along those lines. What is more dubious in my view is whether parametric models have achieved further levels of scientific success, first of all whether they are able to address concerns of classical explanatory adequacy, as represented in the following question: 2) Do P&P theories represent realistic models of language acquisition? In the same year the P&P model was proposed, David Lightfoot happened to publish his Principles of Diachronic Syntax, now regarded as the forerunner of all the foundational work in historical generative syntax which has boomed for the past 20 years (think of Lightfoot’s notion of “local causes”, Clark and Roberts’ and Berwick and Niyogi’s concept of “logical problem of language change”, and Keenan’s idea of “inertia”). A popular proposal at the time, following The 20+ fields, disciplines, projects, and areas of research at the School represent the most diverse range of scholarship at MIT. More specifically, the space of potential inferences is mechanically derived by the grammar, in a context-independent way, by executing a restricted set of structure-modification operations on the asserted sentence. But the parameter seemed to restate the problem, rather They are constructing entirely new languages—or “ conlangs ” —in a class that uses linguistics, the science of language, to supply the necessary building blocks. And no serious “obstacles make it a hard question” (certainly real progress in constructing UG is harder), other than lack of interest and the still unspoken hope that work on UG will somehow eventually make answers to (2) trivial. Posted on May 29, 2011 by Michael Yoshitaka Erlewine. For example, in my For me, therefore, a more promising alternative was the idea in Borer’s Parametric Syntax, that precisely formulated lexical entries of grammatical morphemes, or ‘Grammatical Lexicons’ (of closed class items) were the needed particular grammars $latex G_i$. I remember perceiving vaguely that the squibs that we accepted (after they were reviewed and edited, comme il faut) had changed into something else than the sort of Post-it sized flashes that squibs had been before they had gotten institutionalized, and tamed. This conjecture has gone largely untested, mostly owing to the lack of a reliable and sufficiently wide sample of plausible parameters and to the difficulty of defining a set of triggers for each of them. If it’s a meaningful question as yet unanswered, please tell us what you think the path to an answer might be, or what obstacles make it a hard question. phonotactic patterns by phonology alone, then the maximal syllable can I was preoccupied to know what should be the correct relationship between linguistic theory and language description. No – not quite. Why aren’t the answers trivial? A Margaret MacVicar Faculty Fellow (MIT's highest undergraduate teaching award), Pesetsky focuses his research on syntax and the implications of syntactic theory to language acquisition, semantics, phonology, and morphology (word-structure). MIT Alumni Association. Has it been answered? towards language universals. And I was then assuming that other sciences emphatically do not take human intuitions as data. “A working hypothesis is that part of being a human being is having the kind of mind that allows you to construct and use language in certain ways but not others,” Richards says. Physics doesn’t. The implicature system makes use of one set of potential inferences, the accommodation system makes use of another, Maximize Presupposition reasoning another, and so on. But I was doing this mostly on my own, and the idea that I could present something algorithmic, so that I could turn a crank and out would pop sentences with nice indices of grammaticality, all like clockwork, seemed infinitely far off. Hear the “Conlangs” Invented by MIT Linguistics Students It wasn’t the first time and it likely won’t be the last: On April 27 the MIT Great Dome was transformed. The 20+ fields, disciplines, projects, and areas of research at the School represent the most diverse range of scholarship at MIT. Therefore, I believe that a great deal of insight and respect among neighboring sciences can arise for generative linguistics if questions like 4) are successfully addressed: 4) Do P&P theories represent realistic models of language transmission through time and space? I think we can say that a lot of progress has been made since then and new vistas have been opened up. I was pleased and flattered, probably Dave was too, off we went. Recent Alumni Outcomes. I can’t remember how I would have phrased the question at that time, but I would now put it this way: Can linguistics, given that its data are intuitions about sentences, be a science? When I was in the program (1986-1990), the broad question I most The idea of clockwork-like rules was still officially what I was striving for, but I knew it was out of reach. Paul visited an introductory class I was teaching at Georgetown in the summer of 1985 and told us something like: There are two stances one can adopt with respect to the process of research. What came out in LI were short notes – great notes, notes with deep consequences, I am happy to have helped in any way to get them out – but something was missing. I think that any sufficiently deep/broad investigation, of this kind of phenomenon, will end up in the same place. Thus, the most intriguing problem for me could be formulated as follows: 1) Which (and how abstract) syntactic properties can crosslinguistically vary independently of each other? English, French, etc. Shown in thumbnail for audio feature: Alyssa Wells-Lewis ’21. “A working hypothesis is that part of being a human being is having the kind of mind that allows you to construct and use language in certain ways but not others,” Richards says. This list of Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni includes students who studied as undergraduates or graduate students at MIT's School of Engineering; School of Science; MIT Sloan School of Management; School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences; School of Architecture and Planning; or Whitaker College of Health Sciences.Since there are more than 120,000 alumni (living … What was the broad question that you most wanted to get an answer to during your time in the program? These grammars would be integrated with UG (how was of course also part of the question), and would be working hypotheses which research would further formalize, simplify and refine. Another invented a language that combines speech with whistling. Student Alumni Association (MIT SAA) --- VP, Programming & MIT Ambassador. MIT Linguistics. Enough has been written about that to choke a horse (I like the perspective that Geoff Huck and John Goldsmith offer the best, in their Ideology and Linguistic Theory – Noam Chomsky and the Deep Structure Debates) – there are other things that concern me more for our Fiftieth than this trampled ground. “One of the things you discover when you begin to learn about language is that there are all sorts of things that we do effortlessly, without thinking about it, but that are quite complicated,” Richards says. 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